Mesopotamia

“Everyone has heard of the Babylonian Sky Gardens, the Tower of Babel, the Nebuchadnezzar, and the Flood,” said Ariana Thomas, director of the Museum of the Middle Eastern Museum of the Louvre.

“So, you see, Mesopotamia is more familiar than people think.”

We are standing at the threshold of history beginning in Mesopotamia with a lens of nearly 500 new exhibitions of objects at the Louvre’s outpost in the northern French town of France.

Across 3,000 years of Mesopotamian history (one roughly in line with modern Iraq), it began with the invention of writing, ending in the late 4th century BC, in 331 BC, when Alexander the Great conquered Babylon.

There are many interesting historical relics as well as magnificent works of art, such as alabaster statues, from about 2250 BC, a sitting officer, wearing exquisite wool skirts, bearded, shaved heads, stunning blue mosaic days Bluestone eyes.

The first gallery was Mesopotamia’s “Rediscovery” in the 19th century, when archaeologists began digging in the Middle East.

They wished to discover more about Mesopotamian Assyria and the late Babylonian empires, at this point, mainly by reference to remember in the “Bible” and the classical texts.

They not only locate Khorsabad, the ancient capital of Assyria, a few miles north of Mosul in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul, but they also found the forgotten Sumerian civilization that once dominated the southern land.

Soon Mesopotamia intoxicated the West with the idea. “It occupies the imagination of Europe because people see imperialist powers expressing images that may be relevant,” explains Paul Collins of the Ashmore Museum of Oxford, who explains his new book, Mountains and Lowlands: Ancient Iran and Mesopotamia Bhumibasa, published last month.

There are many fascinating historical artefacts as well as magnificent works of art, such as an alabaster statue, from around 2250BC, of a seated official, wearing an elaborate fleece skirt, with a beard, shaved head, and stunning blue inlaid eyes of lapis lazuli.

The first gallery marks Mesopotamia’s ‘rediscovery’ in the 19th Century, when archaeologists began excavating in the Middle East. They were intent on discovering more about the late Assyrian and Babylonian empires of Mesopotamia, which, at that point, were chiefly remembered through references in the Bible and classical texts.

Ebih-Il praying is a sculpture from the Sumerian period of a seated man made of alabaster with lapis lazuli eyes

Not only did they locate the ancient Assyrian capital of Khorsabad, a few miles north-east of Mosul in northern Iraq, but they also discovered the forgotten civilisation of the Sumerians, who once dominated the south of the land.

It was a world which was alien and exotic, but with fundamental characteristics that were familiar: empires, cities, kings – Paul Collins

Quickly, the idea of Mesopotamia intoxicated the West. “It captured the European imagination because people saw imperial powers expressed in the imagery, which they could relate to,” explains Paul Collins of Oxford’s Ashmolean Museum, whose new book, Mountains and Lowlands: Ancient Iran and Mesopotamia, was published last month.

This model represents the first bridge in history; Mesopotamia means ‘the land between rivers’ in ancient Greek

“Also, of course, it seemed to illuminate the world of the Bible, so there was a sense of a world which was alien and exotic, but also with these fundamental characteristics that were familiar: empires, cities, kings.”

A video projection in the second gallery of the Lens exhibition reveals the extent to which what we might call ‘Mesopotamia-mania’ has infiltrated our own culture.

The ‘land between rivers’

By the 20th Century, Mesopotamia was a touchstone for everyone from artists and architects (witness the decoration on the Fred F French Building, an Art Deco skyscraper in New York), to advertisers and film-makers (consider the starring role played by the Mesopotamian demon Pazuzu in 1973’s horror film The Exorcist). Today, Mesopotamia has been given a fresh lease of life within popular culture, thanks to the success of the Civilisation video games and the prominence of Pazuzu in the Marvel Comics universe.

The demon Pazuzu played a starring role in The Exorcist as well as featuring in the Civilisation video games

Given this profusion of references, it is tempting to ask whether the ancient civilisations of this enormous region, which corresponds to most of Iraq but also encompasses parts of Syria and Turkey, shaped our world in a more fundamental sense, too. As Monty Python might have put it, what did the Mesopotamians do for us?

The answer, it turns out, is quite a lot. But before getting into the nitty-gritty, it’s important to understand what we mean by Mesopotamia. It was the ancient Greeks who coined the term, which means ‘the land between rivers’. They were referring to the flat alluvial region in between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, the so-called ‘cradle of civilisation’ where men first left behind a way of life as hunter-gatherers and founded more settled societies based upon agriculture, which were flourishing by 6000BC.

The Fred F French Building, an Art Deco skyscraper in New York, takes inspiration from Mesopotamian art and design

At some point in antiquity, in the land of Sumer (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait), irrigation was invented as a way of exploiting the fertile earth of southern Mesopotamia. To organise the network of irrigation channels and canals, an administrative system was established that in time stimulated the rise of first city-states, such as Uruk, then kingdoms, and eventually empires.

What linked the various phases of Mesopotamia’s long history was a shared set of customs, traditions, myths and legends, and religious beliefs – in other words, a distinct, and sophisticated culture. Following the invention, around 3200BC, by the Sumerians of the cuneiform script – a system of writing that derives its name from the Latin word cuneus (wedge), a reference to the distinctive shapes of the signs that scribes impressed with a stylus into soft clay tablets that were then dried in the sun – these customs and beliefs were preserved in written texts. Many official tablets were also stamped with cylinder seals, another distinctively Mesopotamian piece of technology.

Mesopotamia developed a system of writing using a stylus on soft clay tablets

“The idea of Mesopotamia is based on the notion of writing,” explains Collins. “It’s this sense that we can connect 3,000 years through the written text. There were scribes and bureaucrats who maintained the tradition, despite the rise and fall of empires, and the arrival of new people and ideas. Mesopotamia is like a sponge. Whenever new people arrive in the region, they absorb the long traditions of Mesopotamia. We see a lot of continuity in terms of religious beliefs and administrative practices.”

Melting pot

Since Mesopotamia is so old, it boasts a lot of ‘firsts’. Archaeologists point to technical inventions, such as the potter’s wheel, as well as remarkable progress in mathematics, medicine and astronomy. The way that we count time, dividing up each hour into 60 minutes, is something we have inherited from the Mesopotamians. Even the first attested consumption of beer comes from Mesopotamia, where dairy and weaving were also developed.

The records of scribes and bureaucrats give insight into how Mesopotamian society was ordered and changed over time

According to Ariane Thomas, Mesopotamia’s location was an important factor in its success, which was underpinned by an enormously rich agricultural base. “Mesopotamia was right at the centre of the Middle East,” she explains. “While its dry earth proved very fertile with irrigation, it also had to be open to the outside, because it lacked important resources, including some woods, stones and metals.” This meant that Mesopotamian civilisations were outward-looking and dynamic.

In his new book, Paul Collins traces the interaction between Mesopotamia and the peoples of the highlands of present-day Iran. The Zagros Mountains were rich copper, which could be used for tools and weapons, as well as lead, silver and gold. “The great monuments of Mesopotamia were often made from or decorated with materials that came from Iran,” Collins explains, referring to the mud-brick ziggurats, several stories high, that characterised Mesopotamian cities (especially Babylon), and inspired the Tower of Babel. (Sadly, in recent years the so-called Islamic State has done irrevocable damage to many important Mesopotamian monuments and sites.)

The first reported consumption of beer

But Collins argues that a simple list of Mesopotamian inventions can lead to a distorted view of history. “Sumerians always think of all the inventions,” he said contemptuously. Instead, he says, archaeologists now find it focused on the more valuable “forces” that Mesopotamia externally influenced.

“Mesopotamia is a melting pot, a mixed population,” he explained. “People say different languages may have different underlying cultural traditions, and often people simply think about” Sumerians “or” Assyrians “when, of course, when we discuss a more complex society.”

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